Diabetes

The gestational diabetes diet: menu ideas

The gestational diabetes diet: menu ideas

According to the definition of the WHO (World Health Organization), gestational diabetes, also “pregnancy diabetes”, is a disorder of carbohydrate tolerance leading to hyperglycemia of varying severity, beginning or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy.

As with other diabetes, gestational diabetes is a disorder of blood sugar regulation (blood sugar level) causing excess glucose in the blood (chronic hyperglycemia).

Foods to avoid in gestational diabetes
This article aims to guide pregnant women with gestational diabetes on their diet. But it does not replace in any case the advice of a doctor to draw up a diet plan adapted to the medical history.

“In 90% of cases, gestational diabetes is linked to a dietary imbalance,” says Dr. Lévy-Dutel, endocrinologist-gynecologist, at the Georges Pompidou European hospital. The diet advised in case of diabetes during pregnancy therefore consists in simply rebalancing the diet in quality and quantity without initiating the least restrictive diet. Beware of misconceptions: there is no question of eliminating starchy foods and fruits on the pretext that they contain sugar.

Before making any major changes in your diet, here are the golden rules for a balanced diet, very simple to put in place to continue to please you while controlling your blood sugar:

3 meals a day
Do not skip any meals and always eat breakfast, even if you take it late in the morning with: a cereal product (bread, cereals, oatmeal), a fruit and a dairy product

Meat, fish, eggs
For lunch and dinner, be sure to eat a source of protein (meat, fish, eggs, ham or chicken breast)

Starchy
Consume a portion of starchy foods per meal and favor starchy foods with a low glycemic index (those that do not increase blood sugar): whole or bran bread, German black bread, whole or wholegrain pasta, basmati rice, split peas, lentils, chickpeas, dried beans, etc.

Avoid white bread, wholemeal bread and potatoes, which increase blood sugar dramatically.

Vegetables
For lunch and dinner, always remember to eat vegetables in an amount at least equivalent to starchy foods. Ideally, make sure you always have at least one portion of raw vegetables per day: green salad, grated carrot, cucumber, white cabbage, tomatoes, etc.

To fill up on vitamins, minerals, antioxidants but also fiber while making you happy, think of vegetable pies, woks, casseroles, soups, vegetable juices, etc.

Fruits
Be content with three fruits per day, making sure to choose fruits with a low GI that you will eat preferably raw to benefit from all its nutritional advantages. If you choose the fruit juice version, even squeeze your fruit and don’t delay to drink your homemade drink! Large-scale fruit juices, whatever they are, have no real nutritional benefits, in terms of vitamins in particular. You can also opt for compotes, but again, prefer the homemade versions which require very little preparation time. Turn off the heat as soon as the fruits are cooked and always taste before adding sugar: the fruit fructose is often enough on its own!

To help you choose fruits that do not increase blood sugar, here is a non-exhaustive list of fruits with a low GI: apricot, almond, banana still yellow (without stains on the skin), blackcurrant, cherry, clementine, strawberry, raspberry, passion fruit, pomegranate, redcurrant, tangerine, blackberry, blueberry, nectarine, hazelnut, walnut, orange, grapefruit, peach, pear, apple, plum, rhubarb.

Just avoid papaya, ripe banana (with stain on the skin) and guava which raises blood sugar too high.

Dairy products
Dairy products include yoghurts, fromage blanc, faisselle and cubs. Consume one at each meal and prefer it without added sugars but not necessarily at 0% because the caloric difference on finished product is small.

That said, you can very well add vanilla beans, cinnamon or cut your fresh fruit in your dairy to make a gourmet dessert. And why not mix it with a few ice cubes and a fresh fruit to make a delicious drink?

Fat
Allow yourself 10 g of butter in the morning and the equivalent of a teaspoon of oil for lunch and dinner.

Grill meats and fish as much as possible in a non-stick pan. If necessary, lightly oil it with a paper towel.

Snack
If 3 meals a day are not enough and you notice that you are hungry between meals (cravings) on a regular basis, increase the quantity of vegetables in the previous meal by adding for example a raw vegetables entry and if that is not enough, put systematically set up a snack with a dozen almonds and a dairy product for example

Sweet products
If foods that are said to be high in sugar such as starchy foods and fruits are not to be removed from your diet, sugar as such should be avoided, or at least limited because it very clearly increases blood sugar, and this, whatever the quantity consumed. So, replace white sugar and brown sugar with sweeteners, or better still with natural sweetening products that do not increase your blood sugar: xylitol (birch sugar), agave syrup or fructose for example. You can find it in the organic section of your supermarket or in an organic store.

And if you are greedy, remove the refined sugars that greatly increase blood sugar: cookies, chocolate bars, etc. But allow yourself a little reasonable pleasure every day: 2 squares of 70% cocoa chocolate, jam with no added sugar (organic section) in the morning or a piece of cheese per day for example.

The Right Food Choices for Gestational Diabetes
To go further in the management of your blood sugar via food, a concept is fundamental: the Glycemic Index (GI).

The Glycemic Index of a food is its ability to increase blood sugar (blood sugar) compared to a reference value, glucose.

The higher the Glycemic Index (GI) of a food, the more it increases blood sugar significantly. The reverse is true for foods with a low GI. The goal, if you have gestational diabetes, is to favor foods with low or medium GI, or at least avoid those with high GI which increase your blood sugar too severely.

To help you make the best food choices, here is a list of everyday foods that have a high GI, and their replacement foods with a low GI:

High GI foodsAlternative low GI foods
Avoid (or accompany with green vegetables)
at least equal quantity
Preferred
All white pasta (except spaghetti)whole pasta
White semolinaWhole or whole semolina
Classic riceBasmati rice (white or whole)
Lentils, Split peas, Chickpeas
White or red beans, Flageolet beans, Quinoa, Bulgur
 
All white pasta (except spaghetti)
White semolina
Classic rice
But
 
 
 
 
Whole or whole pasta
Whole or whole semolina
Basmati rice (white or whole)
Lentils
Split peas
Chickpeas
White or red beans
Flageolet beans
Quinoa
Bulgur
 

White bread
Whole wheat bread
Cereal bread
All VERY dark breads  :
Integral bread
German black bread Pumpernickel
Wasas Fibers®
Bran bread
 
 
 
 
Potatoes
 
 
Yam
 
 

The choice of starchy foods
High GI foods

Avoid (or accompany with green vegetables)

at least equal quantity)

Alternative low GI foods

Preferred

All white pasta (except spaghetti)

White semolina

Classic rice

But

Whole or whole pasta

Whole or whole semolina

Basmati rice (white or whole)

Lentils

Split peas

Chickpeas

White or red beans

Flageolet beans

Quinoa

Bulgur

White bread

Whole wheat bread

Cereal bread

All VERY dark breads :

Integral bread

German black bread Pumpernickel

Wasas Fibers®

Bran bread

Potatoes

Yam

The choice of vegetables
There are actually very few vegetables that have a significant impact on blood sugar: cooked carrots, cooked beet, cooked celery and cooked turnip, squash (pumpkin, pumpkin, pumpkin).

All the other vegetables can be eaten at will at each meal: artichoke, eggplant, asparagus, avocado, chard, raw beet, broccoli, raw carrot, raw celery, cabbage, cucumber, zucchini, watercress, spinach, fennel, beans, turnip raw, onion, fresh peas, leek, snow peas, bell pepper, radish, salad, tomato.

The choice of fruit
Only a few fruits significantly increase blood sugar. This is the case of ripe bananas (with stains on the skin), dates, guava, melon, papaya, watermelon.

All other fruits increase:

very little blood sugar: apricot, almond, banana still yellow (without stain on the skin), blackcurrant, cherry, clementine, strawberry, raspberry, passion fruit, pomegranate, currant, tangerine, blackberry, blueberry, nectarine, hazelnut, walnut , orange, grapefruit, peach, pear, apple, plum, rhubarb
blood sugar moderately: persimmon, kiwi, lychee, mango
The choice of sweeteners
White and brown sugar, as well as honey, are carbohydrates that make blood sugar surge regardless of the amount consumed. Ideally, they will be replaced by low GI natural sweetening products (in organic stores or in supermarkets in the organic department):

agave syrup
fructose
birch sugar (xylitol)
coconut sugar
stevia
Aspartam-type chemical sweeteners may also be used.

Structure of a food day in case of gestational diabetes
Breakfast

Hot drink: infusion, coffee or tea (possibly decaffeinated or detheine)
60 g low or medium GI bread * or 40 g rolled oats
10 g butter
Optional: 2 tsp. to c. jam with no added sugars
1 dairy: milk, yogurt, fromage blanc, faisselle, baby Swiss
1 low GI fruit **
Snack (optional):

1 low GI fruit **
10-15 almonds
Lunch :

Raw vegetables
Vinaigrette (lemon or vinegar, salt, pepper, 1 tbsp of a mixture of olive oil and oil rich in Omega-3 (perilla, camelina, nigella, hemp, nuts, rapeseed, soy), optional: mustard )
Proteins: meat, fish or eggs (2)
Uncooked vegetables
Starchy foods with low or medium GI (100 to 150 g cooked peas) ***
1 dairy: milk, yogurt, fromage blanc, faisselle, baby Swiss
Snack (optional):

1 low GI fruit **
10-15 almonds
Having dinner

Raw vegetables
Vinaigrette (lemon or vinegar, salt, pepper, 1 tbsp of a mixture of olive oil and oil rich in Omega-3 (perilla, camelina, nigella, hemp, nuts, rapeseed, soy), optional: mustard )
Proteins: meat, fish or eggs (2)
Uncooked vegetables
Low or medium GI bread * (quantity to be adapted according to your appetite)
1 dairy: milk, yogurt, fromage blanc, faisselle, baby Swiss
Cheese: add twice a week, on average, a portion of cheese (30 g) to pasteurized milk

  • Low or medium GI bread: integral bread, German Pumpernickel black bread, bran bread, Wasas Fibers

** Fruits with low GI: apricot, almond, banana still yellow (without stain on the skin), blackcurrant, cherry, clementine, strawberry, raspberry, passion fruit, pomegranate, currant, tangerine, blackberry, blueberry, nectarine, hazelnut , nuts, orange, grapefruit, peach, pear, apple, plum, rhubarb

*** Starchy foods with low or medium GI: quinoa, lentils, chickpeas, split peas, white beans, red beans, basmati rice, spaghetti cooked al’dente, whole or whole pasta.

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